Planet Nottinghack

26 March 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Wolf Shield

More shield detailing in the same vein as this pheonix

Also some completed works after latexing

by (Martin Raynsford) at 26 March 2015 10:30 PM

25 March 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Suontaka Sword

A guard and pommel for a suontaka style viking sword (I realise the guard is upside down)

by (Martin Raynsford) at 25 March 2015 10:17 PM

Matt Little

Mini Amplifier Kit

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This is a simple, low-cost amplifier kit based upon the LM386 amplifier IC.

It has a maximum output power of 1W, which is good enough for amplifying mp3 players, phones and also the beeps and sounds from microcontroller projects.

This kit has one surface mount component, the LM386, which is good for those learning to solder surface mount components. The rest of the parts are through-hole.

It is available for just £6 (including delivery within the UK).


by (Matthew Little) at 25 March 2015 08:04 PM

24 March 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Labyrinth Rubber Stamp

By request I made this rubber stamp featuring a labyrinth pattern, my inkpad isn't quite big enough to test it (60mm diameter) but it looks good.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 24 March 2015 10:08 PM

Matt Little

ACS758 Current Measurements

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I've been designing a breakout board for the ACS758 hall-effect current sensor. The first few prototype boards came in and I decided to give them a quick test. The results were not quite as I expected so I thought I'd put write about them here, for others that might be using this IC.

These current sensors come in a number of ranges (50A,100A, 150A and 200A, all with uni and bi directional variants). They use the hall-effect, which measures the change in the magnetic field to measure current. This means you do not need to install a shunt resistor, with its associated power loss and voltage drop.


by (Matthew Little) at 24 March 2015 03:24 PM

23 March 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Elucidator Cosplay Sword

This is a cosplay version of the Elucidator Sword, (hopefully that sounded like I knew what I was talking about. It's another Eldritch sword though so I'm sure it'll be awesome when it's done.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 23 March 2015 09:52 PM

22 March 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Project #3 - Physical Space Invaders Game

After Donkey Kong, Pacman and Lunar Lander we were having a discussion about which other games could be turned in physical versions. So about 6 months ago an idea was forming in my head, more recently I've managed to get all the pieces into the right place to make it happen and my physical version of space invaders was born.

I've document the whole project over on the sharks blog because I've used a Whitetooth laser cutter, a rotary attachment and a break in board.

So you can check out the whole project here

by (Martin Raynsford) at 22 March 2015 08:24 PM

18 March 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

@rideworks - Anodised Aluminium

I had a very spur of the moment visit today by Paul from Rideworks. He wanted to know if our machines were capable of engraving his anodised aluminium parts so the best way to find out was to try it. We played around with a few different speeds and settings and we even cut an impromptu jig to align the parts perfectly. The test results are great, in fact the hardest part of the process was the moving of files between our aging laptops.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 18 March 2015 02:48 PM

17 March 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

@MFUKLC - Ball Feed Joint

My Ping Pong ball cannon is all about the throughput so I need a nice clean way to feed balls into the mechanism. This 41mm diameter sweeping bend was manually sliced in inkscape, cut and assembled in just 2 hours, 3D printers eat your heart out. I can't wait to bodge it into my cardboard mock up and see what improvement it makes. #FDMPrintersSuck


by (Martin Raynsford) at 17 March 2015 11:05 PM

Matt Little

Solar workshop with EWB Nottingham

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I have run a number of solar photovoltaic and off-grid power hands-on workshops and I recently ran another solar PV workshop with EWB Nottingham. This was a two hour workshop run at Nottingham hackspace.

Engineers Without Borders UK (EWB-UK) is a student run organisation trying to connect engineers with the field of international development. They do this through placements, training and outreach programs.





by (Matthew Little) at 17 March 2015 10:25 PM

15 March 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Letterpress Game

I was initially asked to make 3 sets of alphabet tiles for a friend, but after a bit of digging I discovered they were making a physical version of the letterpress game. Something that you could take to a medieval field and not feel out of place using. I ended up making the tray and 3 sets of letters in different woods so it would be obvious who placed which letter. It looks rather neat, I hope to play a game with some point if/when I make it to an event this year.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 15 March 2015 11:40 PM

Steve Barnett hackergotchi for Steve Barnett

Hot Wire Cutter

While building my model SpeedTwin ST2 I needed to neatly cut some foam. Since I had a bunch of 6mm laser safe ply available and needed to cut some other bits the next day I decided to design my own hot wire cutter and cut the parts out at the same time.

Hot wire in CAD

The cutter is designed to be built around some 1/2inch spruce engine bearer stock that I had lying around. Any roughly 1/2inch square section wood will work so long as it is stiff enough.


Most of the parts are designed to be built from 6mm ply, with a few 3mm bits. 6mm, 3mm and 2mm bolts are used to attach the fittings to the wood. Some nichrome wire is used as the heating element, with some stiff wire on the other side to tension the cutting wire. I added some springs to help maintain the tension as the wire stretches. These would work better on the other side to that shown in the photos to increase the amount of wire available for cutting.

Hotwire results

I’ve found lots of articles online about DIY hot wire cutters that suggest using a transformer connected directly to mains, with no current limiting or anything. DO NOT DO THIS. Those people are idiots (and they’re most likely in a country with a lower mains voltage). I’ve been running my hot wire from a lab power supply in current limited mode and it works nicely and gives excellent control over the temperature of the wire.

I’ve uploaded the DraftSight files to my GitHub account for anyone who is interested in them, but please bear in mind the finished product could be dangerous and I take no responsibility for what you do with it.

by moop at 15 March 2015 09:58 PM


Foobot is a project I started around November 2014. It’s still a work in progress, but the time when I should have written it up is more than due.


Foobot is robot table football game, with two teams of two tiny adorable robots. The robots are controlled by classic Nintendo and Sega controllers, hopefully it can can finally settle the age old console wars. :)

Foobot Robots

The intention eventually is to build some games around these robots. Possibly with the ability for a computer to control some of the robots via some image processing if I’m feeling really ambitious.

The robots are built around an ATtiny2313 microcontroller, with an SN754410 to control the motors and a cheap 1402 433mhz radio receiver module. This is mounted on a simple laser cut perspex frame with two wheels mounted directly onto the motors.

Foobot Parts

The initial design was built on stripboard, but once I had it working I ordered a professionally made PCB via This was the first PCB I’ve had made and the quality turned out to be better than expected for the price and the 3 week shipping was pretty bearable.

As the radio modules are very simple (and one way) I decided to avoid the problem of collisions between multiple transmitters by attaching the controllers for all players to a single radio transmitter. The transmitter reads all of the controllers and then sends a packet addressed to each robot in turn. Messages for the robots consist of a robot ID, the message payload and a checksum. Robots ignore all messages not addressed to them and any messages with invalid checksums. Dropped packets or interference are dealt with by hoping the next message with more up to date data will arrive.

Transmitter Unit

The transmitter module is based around a tiny 8 pin ATtiny13 microcontroller. This has just enough pins to read data from all of the controllers and to send a signal to the transmitter module. Some of the lines are shared with the In-Circuit Programming interface for the microcontroller – these were chosen to be the outputs so there was no need to worry about other hardware interfering with programming.

In order to read 4 controllers with 4 pins the transmitter uses a pair of controller interface boards. These have a socket for a NES controller (which contains a shift register so the button states can be read out serially) and a 74LS165 shift register which enables the Master System controller to behave like a NES controller (it is just 6 buttons with a shared common pin). The 75LS165′s latch line is inverted so a transistor was required to invert this in order for the same latch signal to operate both devices.

Transmitter Parts

With this setup the only extra pins required on the microcontroller are shared latch and clock signals and a data line for each NES/Master System controller pair. The serial output from the NES shift register is passed into the serial input on the 74LS165 so sending a latch and 15 pulses reads 8 buttons (2 unused) from the Master System controller and then 8 buttons from the NES controller. The Master System buttons are mapped so they come out in the same order as the buttons with equivalent functions on the NES controller (A, B, Select, Start, Up, Down, Left, Right and 2, 1, N/A, N/A, Up, Down, Left, Right).

In the case of the transmitter the circuit was initially tested on a breadboard. This proved quite fragile due to the flying leads to the various controllers so I ordered some more custom boards. The price break on DirtyPCBs is at 5x5cm, so I designed a single board containing the controller interface and a board to carry the microcontroller in a single 5×5 square. I designed tabs into the board outline to allow the two boards to be broken apart. When fully assembled the transmitter contains two of the controller interface board and one of the microcontroller board, so there will be some spares of the smaller board. The cheapest quantity from DirtyPCB is a protopack of 9-12 boards (I got 11 both times), but I only need one transmitter currently so that works out just fine.

I struggled to motors that are both cheap and small without a ridiculously high RPM. The motors I settled on in the end run at around 16000 RPM and 9 volts. Because of this I had to add some code to pulse width modulate the enable pin on the motor controller. Turning requires very little force so it runs with a very low duty cycle. When moving forward initially the motors run at full power to get the robot moving, after a short delay the duty cycle is lowered to avoid accelerating too fast.

Tuning the PWM settings has proven fiddly, and testing with the programmer attached is almost useless as the wires affect the motion of the robot too much. Because of this I implemented an over the air update of the PWM settings. This added some extra commands to update the PWM duty cycles over the radio, and a command to write the to the microcontroller’s EEPROM to save them permanently once the behaviour feels right.

I’ve uploaded the project to github, including all of the code, schematics, PCB layouts and chassis/case CAD files. Feel free to use these, but please bear in mind that the project is still a work in progress.

Finally, here’s a video of some Foobots in action (before the over the air PWM tuning feature went in):

by moop at 15 March 2015 09:25 PM

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Carcassonne - The Castle Meeples

Just a quick post, it's been a busy week I've been out delivering lasers to people for Just Add Sharks (more to deliver next week too). I also have a great monthly project I've been working on which is very nearly finished so please accept these simple meeples for the week :)

by (Martin Raynsford) at 15 March 2015 04:42 PM

09 March 2015

Matt Little

Engineering in Development 'Energy' Book

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Over the past two years a number of people have been working on a series of books for Engineers Without Borders placement volunteers.

These books are designed to cover the basics of the theoretical, practical and social aspects of doing engineering projects for devlopment. They are meant as a basic guide, a collection of case studies and links to further information.

I have helped co-athour the Energy book and it has been published and released as a free .pdf.

I'm very proud of the final result which, I think, is an amazing resource.


by (Matthew Little) at 09 March 2015 11:16 AM

07 March 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Dual Dragons Foam

Last design from this batch, this dual dragon pattern also looks great, incredibly intricate details but the laser just copes with like any other cut.

Some of the pheonix cut previously have made it onto shields and have been coloured and latexed. Those things look fantastic, there is so much potential for lasers in LRP weapons, a line of matching group shields like this would look amazing on the battlefield.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 07 March 2015 12:48 PM

Foam Stag

I really like this stage. I was worried that the lines all over it we be too thin to engrave clearly but what do I know? They maybe could do with being a little bit deeper for when they are latexed but it's still very pretty. 

by (Martin Raynsford) at 07 March 2015 12:19 AM

06 March 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

More Eldritch Foam

I do enjoy the Eldritch commission work it's varied and I end up making some really nice things, I'll be disappointed when he eventually gets his own laser (but only a little) 

by (Martin Raynsford) at 06 March 2015 12:43 AM

05 March 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Laser Cutting Samples

Terry from Occasions Boxed contacted us at Just Add Sharks asking if we could do a sample to demonstrate the capabilities of the Laser cutter. He sent me a well coloured raster image which left me scratching my head a bit. I little bit of creativity later and I came up with the above, he obviously liked it because he purchased a Blacknose over the weekend and I delivered and installed it on Monday

by (Martin Raynsford) at 05 March 2015 04:58 PM

02 March 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Cutting Video

Looks like I totally forgot to add the cutting video to the bottom of yesterdays post. It cut a bit too slowly and burnt through the wood rather than marking the surface, it also seems to be cutting sections twice (which I just noticed)

by (Martin Raynsford) at 02 March 2015 10:39 PM

28 February 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Project #2: Open Source Laser Cutter, Part 2

Now that I have an easy way to switch controllers into my laser it's time to try out some of the different softwares. I'm quite comfortable with Arduino and I've got a fair few of them kicking round my house so that's a good place to start so GRBL is the first controller that sprang to mind. It's a simple G-Code interpreter and there are a myriad of programs that send G-Code out via a serial port.

The controller:
GRBL is optimised for the AVR328 microcontroller which is typically found in the Arduino Uno so it's very accessible for beginners. The same chip can also be found on the Arduino Nano which can be bought for as little as £2.50 each (which is why I have a box full) so I used one of these instead.
The wiring for the blacknose is very simple, There are only X and Y axis, X and Y limit switches, laser power and laser On/Off. GRBL connections are well documented but it's worth noting that I used the Lasermode variant of GRBL which has the Laser Power on Pin 11 so it can use the hardware PWM.

It took just 3 slow and steady hours making sure the wiring was right and piggy backing the controller onto the break in board. I think I was much more cautious than usual but I was also reconditioning the machine at the same time. The only minor stumble was with the X limit switch, where the switch wires were bundled in with the stepper motor wires there was electrical coupling which prevented the Arduino from accurately detecting the home switch depression. This was solved by separating the two sets of wires along their length (The leetro controllers presumably have some built in filtering to negate the effects).

The firmware:
As already mentioned I used the Lasermode Variant of GRBL, this is freely available and can be easily compiled and flashed to the device using the Arduino IDE. The only minor problem was that I had to use the most recent development branch of the IDE (1.5.8), but that has now gone into stable release (1.6.0).

GRBL is very clever, all of the machine specific settings are stored in EEPROM on the microcontroller. This means if you update the software all the settings remain on the device. All the EEPROM settings are adjustable using text commands over the serial port. Since the software is downloaded using the Arduino IDE it was easy to set up the device using its serial monitor.

The first task is to work out how many steps per mm the laser has. Read the settings to figure out how many steps per mm are currently being used, request the axis to move 10mm and measure how many mm the laser actually moved. When you know how many steps it took and how far it went you can calculate how many steps per mm the machine actually has. The Blacknose has 78 steps/mm on the X axis and 156 steps/mm on the Y axis.

The next task was to set the appropriate direction bits, GRBL has a setting to make sure the direction lines appropriately, the defaults are acceptable. Finally you test the homing cycle to make sure both axis run up to the limit switches and then stop. The image will appear rotated by 180 degrees because GRBL has the origin in the bottom left and the blacknose has it in the top right. It is possible to modify the GRBL settings to correct this but it hardly seemed worthwhile.

The Software:
GRBL accepts G-Code sent to it via the serial port, so you need 2 additional pieces of software, one to create gcode from your drawings and one to send lines of gcode to the machine. There are numerous way to create G-Code but the one that sprung to mind was DXF2GCode. Most vector programs can output dxf so this solution is independent of drawing package.

It's a very simple offering, the file is loaded and displayed in the main window along with the origin point. You are able to turn each of the entities (drawing lines) on and off as required and you can set the feed speed for the drawing. Because it is intended for all CNC machines it includes options for z axis height but we can just set all of those values to zero. The file created contains a series of G-Code instructions that describe the imported image.

To send the G-Code to the arduino I chose to use Grbl Controller, again it's a cross platform solution and it comes with a few useful Jog functions to move the laser head around which makes it good for testing the machine. A handy text box allows you to type commands directly to the controller. You select the required G-Code file and it is sent line for line to the laser cutter. The laser cutter executes each instruction and cuts your required shape.

Results and Conclusions:
GRBL works on the machine, I was able to cut out the test pattern with only minimal editing of the G-Code. I was a bit worried about the response times, There seems to be a noticable delay between turning the laser on and moving the head. With a CNC mill or a low power laser diode this probably isn't noticeable (or may even be necessary to get the mill up to speed), but with a 40W laser this leads to a burn mark on the work piece.

The is no reduction of power as the laser goes round the corner, This is due to the G-Code being fed into the machine but ultimately it means the corners cut better/burn more than the straight lines when the laser head is moving at speed.

It's an extremely functional arrangement that was pretty simple to set up and get running, There was a bit too much manual tweaking to get it running with the big laser so it's probably best suited for small laser diodes. It's all a great learning exercise, next stop is a serious reduction to the amount of metal work on my laser cutter, before moving over to a Laseraur type controller (whatever that entails)

by (Martin Raynsford) at 28 February 2015 10:56 PM

Smoke Rings

I've known about this effect for quite some time but since I had the lid off my laser cutter and I could video easily I thought now was a good time to share. When you're testing the alignment of the laser you cover the mirror with some masking tape and shoot the beam at it. The first shot burns a dot on the tape but subsequent shots increase the dot size, in essence burning a ring around the centre. This ring of burning turns into a ring of smoke which gently rolls upwards from the masking tape. Repeatedly shooting the tape eventually burns through it which may cause damage to your mirror but I did at least manage to capture a few on video.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 28 February 2015 11:52 AM

27 February 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Project #2: Open Source Laser Cutter, Part 1

I want to get involved with the open source laser cutter movements but there are a few hoops to jump through first. I can't really afford to have my laser cutter out of action for any length of time and with so many offerings I'm not entirely sure which system to use, there are a wide range of options and I'm not sure which one is the best so I'll want to try them all. It all leads to this logical first step.

I needed an easy way to switch controllers in and out of my existing systems so I enlisted some help from James who turn my vision into an appropriate schematic and pcb which we sent off to Elecrow for manufacturing. When the boards came back they look absolutely fantastic, black boards and white silk screen really tie into the colour scheme for Just Add Sharks.

The principle is simple; the board mimics the Leetro controller, all of the connectors sit in the same places and their functions are clearly marked on the silkscreen. Each connector is exposed with 2 plated through holes which makes it easy to patch in any controller you want to. The region marked 'Just Add Board' has no tracks running through it so you can drill holes in it and mount your own controller to our board. Solder a few jump leads to the appropriate laser connectors and you can experiment with a complete brain transplant but also switch back to a working system within minutes.

All of the JAS lasers, most of the HPC lasers and a whole host of other machines use the Leetro controller and our hope is that a board like this will help people launch into the world of Open source laser cutters. 

We're now selling the boards at cost (£20 inc VAT and Shipping) over on the Sharks website.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 27 February 2015 10:17 PM

Say it with wooden flowers

I've been married for 7 years this week and I wanted to make something nice for my very understanding wife. I've had this layered veneer rose planned for some time and I'm pleased with the way it came out. The veneers warped quite badly once glued so you definitely need to have the clamps handy during assembly. If I were making it again I would have bigger overlaps to make it easier (svg here)


by (Martin Raynsford) at 27 February 2015 09:39 PM

26 February 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Quality Birch Plywood from Kitronik

I shy away from Birch plywood, it's more dense than the poplar I love so it's useful for more structural things but it cuts slower so I tend to build strength into my designs. Kevin from Kitronik was telling me about their new supplier and how nice the new material was. So I bought some 0.8mm, 1.5mm, 2mm, 3mm and 6mm and I'm extremely impressed with all of it.

The last batch of birch I bought was fairly rough on the surface but it also had a fair number of voids and knots in it. Every time the laser hits one of these it doesn't cut cleanly and you have one of two choices, you can spend just as long freeing the thing up by hand afterwards or you can turn the power up and re cut it. Kitronik has really grasped the idea that quality is essential for laser cutting, I would happily pay a little bit more for quality wood that cuts first time because it's going to cost far more if I have to do it a second time. The best part of it all is that the high quality wood from Kitronik costs the same as the other stuff so there is no contest.

The second thing I've noted is how much nicer the 1.5mm ply is. On previous models I've had a really burnt and black edge and I've had to cut it slower than the 6mm stuff to make sure it cuts cleanly. I'm convinced this is because it was actually non laserable external ply, the Kitronik stuff really is laserable and uses internal glue between the layers so it cuts cleanly.

It's another rave review for Kitronik but with good reason. Get some birch (and Poplar (and Perspex (and Polypropylene))) for yourself, you'll be glad you did.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 26 February 2015 08:50 PM

25 February 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Blacknose Frame

In its basic configuration the Blacknose Laser cutter comes with a water pump and a 35L tub to put water in. I find myself moving my laser around quite a lot (especially while it is in the kitchen/utility room) and it is a pain to move a full tub and the work stand so I laser cut myself a frame to hold the tub onto the work stand. This frame is made from 12mm poplar and requires no glue to keep it together. The two horizontal pieces hook round the vertical legs and stop the frame from sliding off, it also spaces out the vertical slats. The slats have a slight dent in them which stops the tub slipping off the sides of the work stand.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 25 February 2015 12:02 AM

24 February 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Ping Pong Ball Hopper @MFUKLC

An open challenge has been set for the UK Maker Faire this year. Titled the Mega Fun UK Lasercut Challenge (@MFUKLC) the goal is to fire as many ping pong balls as possible at a target in a 30 second time frame.

Well the challenge has been set and busy or not there is no real way we can ignore it so I've had to get my thinking cap on. The competition states that we're only allowed to use an A0 sheet of material which means optimising all the parts to use the smallest amount of material possible. This is a first attempt at a ball hopper, my current launcher design has a lot of capacity but relies on a steady feed of balls so the hopper must hold as many balls as possible and allow them all out in an orderly fashion. This design is easily extendible to include as many rows/columns as required (svg here)

by (Martin Raynsford) at 24 February 2015 09:17 PM

21 February 2015

Dominic Morrow hackergotchi for Dominic Morrow

about 5 years ago this week, a hackspace was born

I often get asked to answer questions for articles I never get to see or fill in surveys for research Continue reading

by chickengrylls at 21 February 2015 11:00 AM

19 February 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Custom Meeples in store now

Now that I have my Whitetooth 80W laser cutter I can reliably cut 12mm ply at a sensible speed, so these 9mm meeples are now possible. I've got them up for sale in my web store and they can be customised with almost any name (upto 8 characters)

by (Martin Raynsford) at 19 February 2015 11:06 PM

Development Work

It's very easy to forget how long it takes to go from prototype to product. Absorbing an awful lot of my time this week is a remake of my Settlers of Catan set. It's more than just a remake though, since I've used that set a fair bit now and there are things I wanted to change and improve upon. The photos above are 4 variations of the tiles, each one improves something different but they all take time. Set number 4 (bottom right) is the one that's ready to move forward but it's only a variant of the final set so there is yet more dev work to do.

Expect more on this in the near future.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 19 February 2015 12:21 AM

12 February 2015

Iain Sharp

Philips Radionics X40 Kit for Children

Mum and dad were always very generous to me, particularly when it came to toys that allowed me to explore my obsession with experimentation and construction. As quite young child I had got the “starter” Philips X20 electronics kit, which I played with a lot. Not too long afterwards, sometime in the late 1970s, and still as a pre-teen, I got the monster Philips Radionics X40 kit for my birthday.

Philips Radionic X40

Not my kit – my box is long-gone, but one from ebay in almost new condition.

For a child excited by technology (in a hands-on way, not the XBOX, iPad, App-store version of technology that many kids love today) the X40 was an impressive and exciting toy. It allowed you to build 40 projects – called “Experiments” in the manual – from testing to see whether water was conductive (boring) to regenerative radio receivers. The radios were the things I loved the best, particularly when dad and I had made special coils and we could tune it to get SW broadcasts. In the pre-Internet era hearing Voice of America and Radio Tirana was exciting.

As well as the radios the kit had some simple digital electronics. I learnt the function of all the basic logic gates from the X40. I also particularly remember a project which was a multivibrator driving a frequency divider. That project used all four transistors in the kit and seemed particularly sophisticated.

Dad put a lot of thought in to which system to buy and I think he liked the Radionics kit because it was open to expansion and the construction technique was very much like real electronics. The kit came with a large (A4 sized) PCB which was cleverly designed to work with all the projects. The components were mounted on plastic bases with brass screws that went through holes in the PCB to make the connections. Basically it was a solderless version of through-hole PCB construction and you got to see the real components pretty much unpackaged. When I went on to building projects on breadboard and veroboard it was an easy transition because I was so familiar with what things looked like from the X40.

I can’t claim that all the time I spent with the X40 taught me much about electronics theory. Even now I find the lumps of theory dished out in the manual rather hard to follow. At the time they were way over my head. What I did learn was a lot about practical electronics and also that electronics was an experimental science – you could just try changing stuff and seeing what worked. Also the presentation of the manual with the circuit diagrams and the physical layout side-by-side taught me to read circuit diagrams intuitively and that’s a skill that’s been really useful.

The connection with Philips seems to be a bit tenuous by the way. The X40 and other kits in the same range were rather confusingly co-branded “Philips” and “Radionics”. Philips had their own range of kits that was popular in Europe and as far as I can tell the X40 was a created by the UK Radionic company who I guess then applied the Philips brand under licence.

For the fundamentals of electronics using bipolar transistors I still think that the basic outline and structure of the X40 projects is very appropriate, so much so in fact that when I designed by Electronics for Absolute Beginners course I took the X40 as the initial starting point.

I still have the components and manual for my X40 kit – one day I’ll have to build some circuits to show you. In the meantime, here is a scan of my manual (48MB to it’s big!).

X40 Manual

X40 Manual

I am not the only fan of the X40 on the web. Try these sites for more info, photos and manual scans:

by Iain at 12 February 2015 01:32 PM

10 February 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Agricola - 2 Player Game

During my Project 52 I laser cut some trays to fit inside the box of our Agricola game. Move on 2 years and there is a new 2 player version of Agricola so I have made some box inserts for this game too. The trays all have rounded corners which makes it easier to scoop the tokens out of the box. The trays, all the tokens and the expansions all fit into the original box.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 10 February 2015 11:27 PM

08 February 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Bigger Knob

I had previously made a Laser cut Knob for the Blacknose laser cutter but I've been using it a bit recently and there were still a few issues with it so I redesigned it. This knob is 50% longer but that's 12mm on either side. On the top it makes it easier to grip without scraping your knuckles on the laser frame, on the bottom the knob extends beyond the square section to hold the shaft better, this makes it far less likely to slip off while in use. (svg here)

by (Martin Raynsford) at 08 February 2015 09:49 AM

07 February 2015

Jason Lee Baxter hackergotchi for Jason Lee Baxter

Batch 5 Ginger Beer

It’s been a long time since I last posted to this blog, I’ve done a fair bit of brewing in that time but nothing noteworthy. (mainly kits) a few months ago I did another batch of ginger beer with the following recipe:

500g Light DME
Juice of 3 Limes + zest
Juice of 3 Lemons + zest
545g Ginger (Blended and steeped)
100g Dextrose
1tsp yeast nutrient
1tsp cayenne Pepper
Wilko’s ale yeast

OG: 1.050 sg
FG: 1.010 sg
ABV: 5.25%

For this one I tired using cayenne pepper which did add a little fire to the taste, I also upped the ginger which make the drink too strong and it required diluting with lemonade to be drinkable.  I also blended the ginger which made it much easier to extract the juices.

I’m currently planning batch which I’ll give a more detailed post for than this.  I’m dropping the ginger contents and somewhat going back to basics with batch 6 which should hopefully give something more immediately palatable.

by Jason Lee Baxter at 07 February 2015 12:02 PM

05 February 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

More Latex Items

Simon from Eldritch is once again showing the fantastic levels of detail that can be achieved in LRP items when the foam is laser cut. I only cut the Fleur De Lis the fantastic edging was done using the Mandala Studios  Silvertail laser cutter(now in stock btw). I can't wait till I need some new LRP weapons I'll be headed straight to Eldritch to see what we can come up with.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 05 February 2015 02:04 PM

03 February 2015

Adam Hillson

Hello world!

Welcome to WordPress. This is your first post. Edit or delete it, then start blogging!

by Bad_Ad84 at 03 February 2015 09:44 PM

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Project #1: New 3D Printer, Part 1

For the longest time I've been quite anti 3D printers. It's a lot of time and effort to end up with a noddy little plastic toy that's badly ribbed along the edges and could often be made easier with alternate tools (like a laser cutter). It's really about using the right tool for the job though and there are things that 3D printers can do better. So I used my Christmas money to buy myself a 3D printer kit so I could fulfil some very specific projects I have lined up this year.

I found a 3D printer kit on line that was very cheap (<£300). It's a variant of the Prusa I3 with a bowden extruder, something I specifically require. It would be very easy for me to knock this printer due to the poor assembly instructions but each time I think about but I find most of my complaints cancel out when I remember how cheap it is. All it really needs is someone in the UK whose built one to answer queries quickly and without the language barrier so I've decided to stock this 3D printer in my own webstore.

Buy your own 3D printer kit from me here.

From here on down I'll be documenting my own build experiences, I set myself 3 nights for building the kit and 3 nights for tweaking and getting a print. This is obviously an ongoing project but I achieved my first successful print at the end of the allotted time and I'm ready to move onto more prints.

The kit shipped directly from China, it weighs 6kg and comes neatly packaged in a cardboad box and pallet wrap so no chance of it getting damp on the journey. The gaps were filled with polystyrene and each component was individually wrapped. The build instructions/software are on a CD tucked inside one of the smaller parcels. The larger parts are laser cut and each of the brackets is 3D printed, a large chunk of the frame is still made with threaded rod and bolts.

The electronics package comes with all the common parts you would expect.

The build itself was relatively straight forward. The kit comes with a series of assembly videos on the CD, these are rather lacking because the video is relatively low quality and it looks like the man in the video is also figuring out how to assemble the kit. It's a I3 variant though so most things you can't figure out from the video are the same as other kits which might have better photos. I have my complete set of my build photos in a picasa album here I suspect they will help some people.

The kit comes with a small selection of tool which could be used to help you build the kit. There are a fair few more tools you'll also need, namely a soldering iron, an electric drill and a decent set of ball end allen keys (because being able to do the bolts at a slight angle makes life so much easier).

The Arduino comes preloaded with version 1.0.0 of the Marlin firmware and the CD has an older version of the Repetier control software. While I initially loaded this version of the CD I ultimately downloaded the newest versions from the website because I found that the CD version didn't integrate with Slic3r correctly. Once I had the new versions set up on my machine I was easily able to connect to the machine and drive things around manually. 

So far so good, this occupied the first 3 nights while my wife was working but it was at this point I felt like I'd moved beyond all the useful information on the CD but there was still a large step before I was going to be printing anything. The software wants all sorts of information at various points and there weren't really any answers on the CD. In part 2 of this post I'll talk about the software and the setup and things I've been learning about the actual printing part. I felt there was a little bit of a gap in the online tutorials and this being Web 2.0 you can just write the bits to fill it in for you.

The kit itself went together smoothly and easily and I would recommend it for people looking for an cheap entry to 3D printing. I have to confess I ended up taking it to the hackspace to find a friendly expert to help me with the settings/setup. Just don't expect to waltz straight in and have it working immediately, this is definitely a 'learn while you build' kind of a kit. I got 99% of the way through on my own but having someone on hand to ask ended up proving invaluable. At least anyone who buys the kit based on this review can ask me if they get stuck.

Don't forget if you want to join me on the journey you can now buy the same kit through me.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 03 February 2015 12:07 AM

01 February 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Signpost Arrows

Made from 6mm Birch plywood, these arrows will be painted up and attached to a signpost mad Hatter stylee.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 01 February 2015 04:32 PM

31 January 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford


A long time ago I was asked for a large batch of kotch snowflakes, it was mostly forgotten about until this week when the order actually came through. Amusing that it coincides with the large amount of snow we've been getting this week.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 31 January 2015 04:19 PM

26 January 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Catan Age of Enlightenment Disks

I had a custom request to make these wooden disks from the Age of Enlightenment expansion for Settlers of Catan. They had seen my previous Catan Disks and felt that the expansion needed the same wooden token treatment.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 26 January 2015 09:28 PM

20 January 2015

Kate Bolin hackergotchi for Kate Bolin

Why did the only woman stop showing up?


It’s a mystery.

20 January 2015 04:00 PM

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Useless Machine Kit Sale

I've got a large pile of useless machines sat in the garage taking up space and I'd like to move them along so I've dropped the price and they're now on sale for £15 each (maker faire prices).

by (Martin Raynsford) at 20 January 2015 11:19 AM

18 January 2015

Kate Bolin hackergotchi for Kate Bolin

lookatthislittlething: A-Frame Doll House, 1961 by Miehana on...


A-Frame Doll House, 1961 by Miehana on Flickr.

from Sunset Magazine, December 1961.

You can build one of these yourself… Instructions here:

18 January 2015 04:00 PM

17 January 2015

Kate Bolin hackergotchi for Kate Bolin

I just got my version of this T-shirt, which is one of the...

I just got my version of this T-shirt, which is one of the patent images of the Omnimover design for some of the rides at Disneyland and other Disney parks.

I wish Disney would actually produce t-shirts and the like based on things like this instead of me going to Redbubble, but they would rather sell lavender and glitter shirts.(Not that I mind that shirt that much, just, compared to this one…No.)

I love this shirt because it is so freaking nerdy. I mean, look at it. It’s a patent design for a car in an amusement park ride.  That is then used in a haunted house dark ride that I’m in love with.

17 January 2015 03:05 PM

16 January 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Follow the Sharks

Hopefully many of you will be aware that Dominic and I run a UK laser importing business in the guise of JustAddSharks. We're making some massive improvements to the web store and the whole web site over the next few months and I'm trying to get some life back into that blog.

We intend to be making a few announcements and featuring the work of our customers (and some of it is absolutely amazing) but we'd also like to feature work of other people. So if you have a hot tip for us on any laser cut item then we'd love to know about it. Let us know what you're working on and who else inspires you. Just send your emails to

by (Martin Raynsford) at 16 January 2015 08:27 PM

Can you tell what it is yet?

So the parts for the first of 12 projects just arrived. This is probably the one that's furthest from my normal stuff, but it will bear relevance as we go through the year. I'm planning a serious build day next week where there will be unboxing and assembly photos and probably even some stop motion of the day. Fun times.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 16 January 2015 01:46 PM

15 January 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Even More Rune Tags

Now with annual postings. Christmas has happened so people are looking LARPward and gearing up for the new season, I've had 3 LRP related orders this week. The first are these dated rune tags, this is the first batch on my new laser and I was able to outline the etching to make it really stand out.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 15 January 2015 08:32 AM

13 January 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Moire Puma

I saw this wonderful Moire Pattern appear of several blogs last week and I just knew I had to put this technique into laser cutting. The original artist is Andrea Minini and she has lots of amazing drawings all done in a similar style. For my version I manually traced the original image to create the vector artwork, each line is just a single low power cut and they are around 100 concentric rings. It was 8 hours of drawing but once the first one was cut it was all worth it.

There has been some discussion since about making further patterns like this automagically, if anything comes from that I'll be sure to post the workflow up here.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 13 January 2015 02:56 PM

09 January 2015

Matt Little

Arduino and Mobile Data

No image

I've been wanting to play around with sending data via a mobile SIM card and, after needing to do it for another project, here is a short post on my attempts at getting it all going.

I used an off the shelf GSM/GPRS module (the SIM900).

I tried this using both the Arduino Uno and the Arduino Leonardo.

Here are the results from my tests.


by (Matthew Little) at 09 January 2015 06:08 PM

07 January 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Advent Christmas Lights

I went to put our regular Christmas lights out and found that only half the LED's were lighting up so for a quick win I put up my 5m long strip of 300 neopixels instead. It instantly added colour and excitement but it rapidly turned into it's own project when I added a real time clock to turn the lights off at night.  I realised that by adding a different flash pattern each day I would have Advent Christmas lights. The system counts down to midnight and shows special animations for the occassion and it also turns the lights off permanently on the twelfth night

The setup up is very simple, an Arduino nano is connected to a Real Time clock and a string of neopixels and driven from a 5V 4A power supply. The code is included below but in brief, each animation follows a series of rules
  • Animations that are based on a single 'brightness' value so the patterns can be dimmed. 
  • Animations are intended to be 'non blocking' so the arduino can be used for other things at the same time (partial success with that). 
  • Animations are based on the number of LED's so by changing the constant a shorter or longer string can be used easily.

The software is all based upon the FastLED animation library, you will need to download this before the code will compile. (Code here)

by (Martin Raynsford) at 07 January 2015 10:39 AM

06 January 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Dot Matrix Display

I acquired 4 of these Sure 0832 dot matrix electronics boards recently. They were going spare from a project I worked on a long time ago (pre blog). Instead of leaving them in a box and forgetting about them I thought I should turn them straight back round into a new display that we can take along to Maker Faires. A simple laser cut frame holds all 4 displays in place, an arduino nano drives the boards and controls the animation. I'm using Miles Burtons arduino library to control the basic functions but I had to update it for the most recent version of the arduino IDE (1.5.8) so I've included that modified library in with the source files (source here)

by (Martin Raynsford) at 06 January 2015 10:32 PM

Matt Little

Modular Lampshade Project

No image

I was wanting to make an interesting lampshade as a specal Christmas present this year. I set about searching Instructables for inspiration.

I found a really interesting modular lampshade concept, which was originally designed by Holger Strøm in 1972 and called the IQlight.

This used a repeated unit which was cut out of polypropylene using a laser cutter.




by (Matthew Little) at 06 January 2015 08:02 PM

05 January 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Extractor Vent

With my second laser still coming and going at a moments notice (soon to be permanently dismantled in my garage though) I often end up with a spare exhaust port that's just sucking air in and not pulling air from my main machine. I made up this close able vent which sites between 2 blue pipes and allows me to turn the tube off when not in use. It's made from a few stacks of 12mm ply and it works ok. I think it might be better to develop a shutter type version for both sides (and when I box in the extractor) but it's not bad for a first attempt.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 05 January 2015 09:09 PM

04 January 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

Never E-Knuff

I know that people have download the files for these knuff magazine racks but those people were clearly all polite to tell me that the files didn't actually work. The only reason I know is that I came to make a few more of them tonight and the tabs just didn't line up. So here is the updated version of the file which does now work (svg here)

The file contains parts for 2 knuff, The 2 left sides fit neatly together and are mirrored to form the right hand side, that way you can keep all the 'burnt' sides pointed in.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 04 January 2015 08:53 PM

Matt Little

Wind Empowerment Conference 2014

No image

For the past week I have been at the 2nd Wind Empowerment conference in Athens.

Wind Empowerment is a network of groups working on Small Wind Turbines, with a particular focus on the Hugh Piggott designed wind turbine.

The conference was an inspiring mix of interesting presentations, hands-on workshops and social fun. Around 45 people from at least 10 countries attended.

Here are some notes and photos from the event.


by (Matthew Little) at 04 January 2015 04:34 PM

01 January 2015

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

12 in 12, projects ahoy

Following on from the rather successful 365 projects in 365 days and 52 projects in 52 weeks it does look like I'm going for 12 big projects in 12 months this year. These won't all be purely laser cut and potentially some of them may not include laser cutting but I'll photograph, document and share as usual. I made a list this morning of the big projects I want to complete this year and I'm already up to 8, I'm pretty sure the other 4 will just appear before the end of the year.
(edit: I already remembered another 2 I promised to do)

I promise I'll also find time to squeeze the usual amount of laser cutting around everything else too.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 01 January 2015 01:50 PM

29 December 2014

Spencer Owen hackergotchi for Spencer Owen

Happy New Year. Again. And Again. And Again…

A recent discussion started with the simple question “When is it New Year?”.  Well, 1st January, right?  The stroke of midnight on 31st December?  Depends where you are on the planet?  [depends what planet [if any] you are on].  It depends on which timezone you are in.

So, we settled on it being at the stroke of midnight for each of the timezones around the world.  Which, surprisingly, is 30.  Less surprisingly, they cover a full 24 hours.


Upon discovering this, the only decent thing to do seemed to have a drink to toast New Year all around the world.  So, this year, I’ll be getting together with a few friends to see in the New Year – all 30 of them!  If you want to join us, you can use the list below, or follow Brisbane Clock Tower on Twitter as it announces them live over the 24 hours.

If you do join us, please let me know where in the world you are and use the hashtag #NYEoClock in tweets!

No. Place GMT BNEClockTower Link
1 Kiritimati 10:00:00 AM 8:00:00 PM
2 Auckland 11:00:00 AM 9:00:00 PM
3 Melbourne 1:00:00 PM 11:00:00 PM
4 Brisbane 2:00:00 PM 12:00:00 AM
5 Darwin 2:30:00 PM 12:30:00 AM
6 Perth 4:00:00 PM 2:00:00 AM
7 Hanoi 5:00:00 PM 3:00:00 AM
8 Yangon 5:30:00 PM 3:30:00 AM
9 Dhaka 6:00:00 PM 4:00:00 AM
10 Kathmandu 6:15:00 PM 4:15:00 AM
11 Mumbai 6:30:00 PM 4:30:00 AM
12 Islamabad 7:00:00 PM 5:00:00 AM
13 Kabul 7:30:00 PM 5:30:00 AM
14 Dubai 8:00:00 PM 6:00:00 AM
15 Tehran 8:30:00 PM 6:30:00 AM
16 Khartoum 9:00:00 PM 7:00:00 AM
17 Helsinki 10:00:00 PM 8:00:00 AM
18 Carcassonne 11:00:00 PM 9:00:00 AM
19 Nottingham 12:00:00 AM 10:00:00 AM
20 Rio de Janeiro 2:00:00 AM 12:00:00 PM
21 Buenos Aires 3:00:00 AM 1:00:00 PM
22 St. John’s 3:30:00 AM 1:30:00 PM
23 Halifax 4:00:00 AM 2:00:00 PM
24 Caracas 4:30:00 AM 2:30:00 PM
25 Toronto 5:00:00 AM 3:00:00 PM
26 Dallas 6:00:00 AM 4:00:00 PM
27 Denver 7:00:00 AM 5:00:00 PM
28 Vancouver 8:00:00 AM 6:00:00 PM
29 Anchorage 9:00:00 AM 7:00:00 PM
30 Honolulu 10:00:00 AM 8:00:00 PM

Cheers and HAPPY NEW YEAR!

by Spencer at 29 December 2014 04:48 PM

Martin Raynsford hackergotchi for Martin Raynsford

The view from rubbish mountain

Yay for Christmas, I have lots of new toys and lots of new exciting things to do in the new year. I also have new products working their way through and (vast) improvements to old products, but if I'm so busy why no posting? Well Christmas happened so I had to move all my secret stashes of junk from places like the sunroom into the garage and then this morning I had a customer visit so I had to move all the crates out of the garage into the sunroom. It's not turmoil, more like organised chaos. The upshot is that I have some space in my garage to sort out this massive pile of junk. I'm going in and I may be some time.
Belated Merry Christmas and a Happy soon to be New Year.

by (Martin Raynsford) at 29 December 2014 10:30 AM

28 December 2014

Steve Barnett hackergotchi for Steve Barnett


Finished Tricopter

I’ve been neglecting this blog recently due to various distractions but have several projects I want to write up. Around April I found myself with the urge to build a multicopter. In the end I settled on a tricopter design as it’s a little unusual and because the wider angle between the arms allows plenty of clearance to mount a camera without getting the propellors in frame.

Bare frame

To keep costs down and because I enjoy designing things I ended up drawing and laser cutting my own plywood frame. This was loosely based on the folding arms of David Windestål’s design, with a lot of modifications to fit the size and shape I wanted and to fit the parts I had chosen.

The arms of my tricopter are cut from 3/8″ birch engine bearer stock, as sold in most model shops. I bought 3 12″ lengths which I cut off centre to make a set of 7″ arms and a set of 5″ arms. In the end I was happy with the 7″ arms so I’ve not yet tested the 5″ version.


The frame is designed to have two 3mm ply lower plates that the arms are sandwiched between, held together with 2mm machine screws. The screws are tightened so that the arms are held in place by friction when unfolded, but they can still be folded relatively easily without any adjustments or tools.

Following David’s pattern, the landing struts and motor plates are attached with cable ties. These hold everything firmly in place but will hopefully give or break before the frame components if too large an impact is applied.

Above the two structural plates of the frame there is a third plate with a large number of cutouts. This sits above the frame on laser cut plywood standoffs and serves to protect the electronics that sit on top of the frame. The KK 2.1 flight controller I’m using has a build in LCD display and buttons for configuration in the field. All of the buttons and the display are accessible through a cutout in the top plate. Additionally the plate helps with cable management, wiring being attached to the frame with cable ties and velcro straps to keep it neat.

Swivel Mount

Because I went for a tricopter design I required a swivel mount for the rear motor. This consists of a modified motor mount plate with two tabs on the bottom through which an M3 bolt is threaded. A pair of bearing carriers are formed from two layers of ply parts that slot over the rear arm with appropriately sized holes to trap a pair of bearings through which the bolt runs. The rear landing strut was cut with an appropriate cutout for the metal gear servo that moves the rear motor mount. This turned out to be a weak point and is so far the only part I have broken. A new design has been drawn up but has yet to be tried as the replacement rear leg is still going strong after many more landings (with slightly more care).

Rear ESC modifications

Electronically the tricopter is fairly simple, though there is a small hack to power the rear servo. Each speed controller includes a voltage regulator which normally powers the other equipment that needs 5 volts. Since there are multiple ESCs in a multicopter, only one of these is required. People cut the 5v wire to prevent the regulators from fighting (probably only necessary with switching regulators). The KK 2.1 board simplifies this as the first ESC connector powers the board and radio reciever while the 5v pin from the other 7 are isolated so no wires need to be cut. This does mean, however, that no power is provided to the servo. To work around this I modified the rear ESC by desoldering the 5v wire and removing it from the connector. I then soldered a 3 pin header to the voltage regulator output to make the 5v and ground lines of an additional connector. The 5v wire from the original connector was attached to the third pin of this and at the other end plugged into the signal pin from the servo output on the KK 2.1 board. This provides a connector on the rear ESC into which the servo could be plugged, providing power and the appropriate signal to drive the servo (see diagram).

Tricopter Wiring Diagram

Top View

Very few changes were required to make the tricopter fly nicely, with the exception of increasing the proportional gain for roll and pitch without which the controls felt quite sluggish.

I have some video from an early test flight shot using a cheap 808 keychain camera. I’ve since bought a Mobius and added an appropriate mount but haven’t had chance to get any footage with the new camera due to weather. The downside of building the tricopter from wood is I don’t want to get it wet!

Mobius Cam

Reciever: Hitec Optima 7
Flight Controller: KK 2.1
ESCs: Turnigy Plush 10A
Motors: Turnigy Multistar 1704-1900kV
Rear Servo: Turnigy TSS 10-MG
Battery: Turnigy 1000Mah 3S 20C LiPo

I’ve made the drawings from which the tricopter was built are available to download and I’d enjoy hearing about it if anyone uses them in a project.

by moop at 28 December 2014 04:12 PM

27 December 2014

Kate Bolin hackergotchi for Kate Bolin

uispeccoll: Just in time for the holidays: An archival...


Just in time for the holidays: An archival container for Chesterwhite, the UI Libraries’ first web server (1994-1998), now taking up permanent residence in the University Archives.




27 December 2014 04:00 PM